Football pools became increasingly popular, and they were taxed through the Pool Betting Duty of The decline of the moralistic political forces led to the Betting and Gaming Act which legalized private casinos. The government set up its National Lottery in Spas such as Bath, Epsom, and Tunbridge Wells became popular after for the rich.
They enjoyed lawn bowling and dancing, as well as medical benefits. Puritan pamphleteers such as Philip Stubbes warned that these "tubs of pleasure" made drinking, gambling, and illicit sex available to all visitors. Although Restoration England — featured a revulsion against Puritanism, gambling was seen as a stupid folly. Playwrights depicted gambling at dice, cards, and the tables as an aristocratic folly. After plays portrayed gambling more as vice than folly.
Comedies and periodicals in the early 18th century portrayed gamblers disapprovingly. In — Queen Elizabeth launched England's first national public lottery to raise money to repair the harbors. However, only 10 percent of the , lots were purchased. Local elites were often hostile, because of distrust of the government and concerns about the immorality of gambling. The tickets were sold in —, and the prize money was awarded in , so each player got his money back and in effect was making an interest-free loan.
In later decades, the government sold the lottery ticket rights to brokers, who in turn hired agents and runners to sell them. These brokers eventually became the modern day stockbrokers for various commercial ventures. Most people could not afford the entire cost of a lottery ticket, so the brokers would sell shares in a ticket; this resulted in tickets being issued with a notation such as "Sixteenth" or "Third Class".
Many private lotteries were held, including raising money for The Virginia Company of London to support its settlement in America at Jamestown. The English State Lottery ran from until Thus, the English lotteries ran for over years, until the government, under constant pressure from the opposition in parliament, declared a final lottery in This lottery was held up to ridicule by contemporary commentators as "the last struggle of the speculators on public credulity for popularity to their last dying lottery".
Horse racing has been a favorite sport and gambling venue since Tudor days. They involved multiple horses, with betting by the spectators. By the Jockey Club was formed to control the Newmarket, preventing dishonesty, and making for a level field. The five classic races began with the St Leger Stakes in The system was complete in with five annual races. In the 18th century, horse racing became well-established. The system of wagering was essential to the funding and the growth of the industry, and all classes participated from the poor to royalty.
High society was in control, and they made a special effort to keeping the riff-raff out and the criminal element away from the wagering. With real money at stake, the system needed skilled jockeys, trainers, grooms and experts at breeding, thereby opening new prestigious careers for working-class rural men. Every young. The state lottery was a remarkable success in the 18th century, starting with the Queen Anne lotteries of — This form of gambling combined the advantages of rational calculation and inexpensive fantasy with quick results.
Unlike card games, there were no angry losers. Unlike racing, there was no behind the scenes fixing of outcomes. Lotteries brought in large sums to the Treasury, and thus provided the funding for numerous major wars. Additional wars necessitated additional lotteries. Much larger sums were involved in the lotteries that financed the American war, — Lotteries loosened the money pouches of previously uninvolved individuals. Frequent purchasers of lottery tickets were called 'adventurers', And then their friends were the center of untold conversations about what they would do with the fortunes they were about to win.
Advertising for the lottery help funded fund the newspapers, and reports on the winner helped sell copies. Britain had succumbed to 'gambling mania'. Government lotteries were abolished in In the private sphere, distinctly different styles of gambling took place in the upper, middle and working classes.
In the upper classes, gambling the family fortune was very common, with high-stakes and high losses--called "deep play". The venue was private clubs, which had an atmosphere that controlled against violence or vehement behavior.
Fox was a highly influential politician supported by very rich political allies who regularly covered his losses, but his political enemies rhetorically attacked his heavy losses. In the middle class, a business orientation meant that recreational gambling at home was moderate, with limited stakes, and the goal of camaraderie and genial conversation rather than winning money.
The middle classes rejected blood sports, and discovered that music, conversation and cards suited their taste for exercise of intellect and ability. Young people were allowed to play too, so they could learn to calculate quickly in their minds, and account for money lost and won. Historian Andrew August finds that, "In the face of efforts of radicals and middle-class reformers, drink, gambling and raucous conviviality remained central to mid-Victorian working-class leisure.
Immediate information was essential to betting, and was only available at the racetracks. The telegraph disseminated the information instantly across Britain, and the railroad attracted audiences, and allowed the horses to be moved from place to place quickly. The number of active racing horses doubled between in , prize money increased, and racing was now a national sport.
Incomes were hire, leaving workers with more money to spend on drink, sex and gambling. About betting houses served the working-class neighborhoods in London in the s, accepting small bets, and making payoffs in a matter of minutes, allowing repeated betting on race days. When reformers made bidding houses illegal, the action moved to pubs and into the city streets. The better educated gamblers focused on racing, where random luck was less important and where skill, the assimilation of fresh information, and analysis of previous results provided an intellectual stimulus.
Numerous sporting magazines appeared, reaching a total circulation of about , by the s. The Sporting Times operated —, with its distinctive salmon-colored paper immediately identifying a gambler. Sporting Life was the most popular, starting as a weekly in and becoming a daily in Horse racing was the core of its content, but it covered many other sports as well.
It could not compete with the Internet and closed in Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos became the rage during the Victorian era. Steeplechasing first became organised by Tom Colman at St Albans in the early s. In , Sandown Park became the first racecourse to open a separate members' enclosure. In Hamilton hosted the first evening race meeting in the UK.
Now Wolverhampton Racecourse holds the most evening meetings, with nearly 50 a year. The Jockey Club governed the sport until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Board , formed in June and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport.
In it formed the Horseracing Regulatory Authority to carry out the regulatory process whilst it focused on owning 13 racecourses and the gallops in Newmarket and Lambourn. Apart from Chelmsford City and Ffos Las which opened in , all the courses date back to or earlier. The oldest is Chester Racecourse , which dates to the early 16th century. Unlike some other countries, notably the United States , racing in Britain usually takes place on turf.
Southwell's surface is Fibresand. Wolverhampton installed a Tapeta surface in August , replacing the existing Polytrack; Newcastle converted its historic Gosforth Park flat racing turf track to a Tapeta course with the addition of a floodlit all-weather straight mile in May All flat racing at Newcastle now takes place on the Tapeta surface with a turf course retained solely for a winter programme of jumps racing.
The other three British all-weather tracks are all Polytrack. Ireland has a single all-weather Polytrack course at Dundalk. Courses also vary wildly in layout. There are very few which are regular ovals, as is the typical layout of other countries like the United States. Each course has its own idiosyncrasies, and horses are known to be more suited to some tracks than others, hence the idiom " horses for courses.
There are two main operating groups of British racecourses — Jockey Club Racecourses , which runs fifteen courses, and Arena Racing Company , which runs sixteen courses. Britain is home to some of the world's most important flat races and race meetings. While ancient horse races like the Kiplingcotes Derby and Newmarket Town Plate are now mainly curiosities, there are many older races which retain modern relevance.
Leger — were founded in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and still represent the pinnacle of achievement for each generation of horses. The structure and distances of these races, if not the exact names, have been adopted by many other European horse racing authorities, such as Ireland.
Royal Ascot is the major flat racing festival in Europe and attracts horses from all over the world. The modern flat season in Britain now also climaxes with British Champions Day , a festival of championship races, also held at Ascot. Britain is the home of National Hunt racing , although the sport has more national significance and popularity in Ireland. The festival hosts races such as the Cheltenham Gold Cup and Champion Hurdle , which are seen as the peak of their disciplines and over the years have been won by horses whose appeal has transcended the sport, including Kauto Star and Desert Orchid.
More widely known still is the Grand National at Aintree , which despite being a very long and difficult race that is historically contested by a lower grade of horses than races at Cheltenham, has produced some of the sports equine superstars, like Red Rum. It has an estimated global audience of million viewers.
British horse racing is served by a daily, national newspaper, the Racing Post , founded in This carries industry news, racecards for all British and Irish race meetings, tipping columns and betting information, as well as smaller sections on greyhound racing and general sport. Many national dailies also carry racing news and information in their sports pages. At various times in history, there has been more than one racing daily, and fierce rivalries have existed between them.
The Racing Post was founded in to fill the gap and challenge the Sporting Life monopoly that resulted and these two were rivals throughout the 80s and 90s. Going back to Victorian times, there was a wide range of sporting newspapers that carried racing news to a greater or lesser extent.
In , Bell's Life is reported to compete with the Sunday Times as the two weekly turf newspapers. There are two dedicated horse racing channels on British digital television — Sky Sports Racing free to air and Racing TV subscription only. Daily broadcasts of British race meetings are split between the two according to contracts arranged by racecourses and racecourse owning groups.
Saturday racing and key midweek festival meetings are also broadcast on terrestrial television by ITV. The channel broadcasts a Saturday afternoon programme of live racing, usually between 1. ITV had previously shown horse racing since its first weeks on air in , and in the s it provided an alternative to BBC coverage with the ITV Seven which featured as part of the channel's World of Sport programme.
This lasted until the early s, when coverage was gradually transferred to Channel 4. Prior to , ITV had not shown any horse racing since For many years, racing was also broadcast on the BBC , who pioneered coverage of the sport in the s.
The network retained the rights to key race meetings, such as the Grand National, Royal Ascot and the Derby until when it was outbid for the rights by Channel 4. Channel 4's covered the sport for more than 30 years. Initially it showed the midweek events which were previously shown on ITV but from late it covered all of the racing previously shown by ITV. Between and , Channel 4 was the exclusive home of horse racing on terrestrial television.
As with other sports, many of the people who have presented racing on TV through the years have become inseparably linked with racing in the public consciousness. Clare Balding transferred from the BBC in to become lead presenter. Wagering money on horse races is as old as the sport itself, but in the United Kingdom the links between horse racing and nationwide wagering are very strong.
Betting shops are common sights in most towns, tending to be sited wherever a significant number of people with disposable cash can be expected. At one point in the s it was said that the ideal location was "close to a pub, the Labour Exchange and the Post Office", [ by whom?
Previously betting was either on course, via certain credit betting offices, or illegally conducted often in or around public houses , with 'bookies runners' ferrying the bets from bookmaker to client. Betting is taxed under the authority of various acts of Parliament. A gross profit tax is levied on all UK based bookmakers which is payable to the exchequer , and a separate sum is agreed and collected by the Horserace Betting Levy Board , a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport , who use the funds for race prize money and the improvement of horse racing.
Member of Parliament Clement Freud , who himself had owned racehorses, alleged in an article published in the s, before his election to Parliament, that horse racing was organized purely to generate taxes. He cited the large number of otherwise non-viable racecourses kept open to ensure sufficient races being run even as the financial rewards to the owners and trainers declined to the point where most could barely cover their expenses.
The last 10 years in the UK has seen massive growth in online gambling. Punters are now going online to place their bets [ vague ] , where technology gives them access to a greater wealth of information and knowledge. Now racing punters exchange information on online forums, tipping sites etc. For example, over , people are set to participate in the next Cheltenham festivals.
In the early days of British horse racing, owners tended to ride their own horses in races. This practice died out as racing became more organised and the owners, most of them aristocrats, had grooms ride the horses instead. Jockeys at this time were often scruffy and unkempt and not well-regarded. Their counterparts in the south became similarly celebrated, and exercised a similar dominance over the Newmarket classics.
The 19th century was dominated by three jockeys — Nat Flatman , George Fordham and Fred Archer — who between them won forty flat jockeys' championships. With the expansion of print media and the growth of interest in horse racing among ordinary people, these jockeys became nationally recognised figures, with a profile enjoyed by the footballers and TV celebrities of today. When Archer died at his own hand, it is said:. The high profile of jockeys at this time is illustrated literally by the number of caricatures of jockeys that feature in Victorian society magazine, Vanity Fair , alongside MPs , aristocrats and other national figures.
Three figures dominate the flat racing scene of the 20th century too — Steve Donoghue , Gordon Richards and Lester Piggott. Richards is often regarded as the greatest jockey ever  and set many records which still stand, including most flat race victories and most flat jockey championships.
Piggott is descended from the great racing families of the 19th century, the Days and the Cannons, and for many is the greatest jockey still living. In the modern day, Frankie Dettori is the jockey with the widest public profile beyond racing, appearing on Celebrity Big Brother  and launching his own food range.
Kieren Fallon was a regular champion around the turn of the century, and younger jockeys to have won multiple championships include Ryan Moore , Jamie Spencer and Paul Hanagan. In recent years, Hayley Turner has come to prominence as the first British woman to win a Group 1 race outright  and as Champion Apprentice in Historically, jumps jockeys have not had the same profile as their flat counterparts, but this changed to some extent in the 20th century.
The large television audience enjoyed by the Grand National has helped in this regard. Previously unknown jockeys like winner Ryan Mania have received their first nationwide coverage as a result of the race. Richard Johnson , who has been second to McCoy in nearly all of his championships has the second most wins jockey of all time, and gained tabloid fame in the late s for his relationship with Zara Philips.
Former champion jump jockeys Dick Francis and John Francome have become known to a wider public after enjoying second careers as writers of racing-based fiction,  while Francome until the end of and Mick Fitzgerald are known as horse racing TV pundits. As of November , there are around professional jockeys licensed in the United Kingdom, along with around amateur riders. They largely concentrate on Group races. Operating in much larger numbers of runners, but with a greater spread of quality, are trainers such as Mark Johnston , Richard Hannon Jr.
Aristocratic families have always owned horses in Britain and the list of Classic winners features names such as the Earl of Grafton , Earl Grosvenor and Earl of Egremont from early days. In the modern era, the Queen continues to retain a stable of horses trained by the likes of Michael Stoute. The two most prominent flat owners of the current era are Sheikh Mohammed, under the Godolphin banner and the team of Michael Tabor , John Magnier and others, based in Ireland.
Modern-day racing originated in Britain, so many figures from British racing have shaped the sport. Admiral Rous established the handicapping process for horse racing , including the weight-for-age scale, while in the 20th century, form expert and some time administrator of the sport, Phil Bull established Timeform whose ratings are often used to assess the all-time great horses.
The Chief Executive of the BHB stated in the annual report that "Success was achieved in an environment of great uncertainty. The data charges were themselves designed to replace income lost when a statutory levy was abolished. In attendances exceeded 6 million for the first time since the s annual report. The decrease in is attributable to the closure of Ascot Racecourse for redevelopment for the entire year. A investigation by The Observer found that each year , horses are slaughtered for consumption abroad, a significant proportion of which are horses bred for racing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Articles ordered by His Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to ride for the Plate, the new round heat at Newmarket set out on the first day of October, , in the 16th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II, which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the second Thursday in October for ever.
Main article: List of British racecourses. Further information: List of British flat horse races.
In the most basic horizontal wager, an exacta , the bettor selects the first and second place horses in the exact order. Picking the first three finishers in exact order is called a trifecta and a superfecta refers to the specific finishing order of the top four horses. Boxing is a tactic that increases the odds of winning an exotic wager by removing the need to choose the exact order. A quinella , which boxes an exacta allowing the first two finishers to come in any order and still win , is the basic box, but boxing can be applied to the trifecta and superfecta as well.
In a sense, a win bet can be thought of as a specific type of wheel bet. Vertical bets are spread over different races. A daily double is an exotic wager placed on the winner of two consecutive races. Picking the winner of three, four, five or six straight races is referred to as a pick-3 , pick-4 , pick-5 and pick-6 respectively. In addition to traditional betting with a bookmaker, punters bettors are able to both back and lay money on an online betting exchange.
Punters who lay the odds are in effect acting as a bookmaker. The odds of a horse are set by the market conditions of the betting exchange which is dictated to by the activity of the members. By the late 19th century over tracks were in operation in the country but those opposed to gambling caused the banning of bookmakers and horse racing at the beginning of the next century.
In pari-mutuel tote betting was introduced, helping the industry to prosper and that has continued to be the case to the present day. Pari-mutuel betting is currently legal in 32 US states. Due to new legislation horse race betting in the US could change significantly in the near future.
Hong Kong generates the largest horse racing revenue in the world and is home to some of the largest horse betting circles including the Hong Kong Jockey Club founded in Betting on horse racing is ingrained in local culture and is seen as an investment. The revenue the club generate from various wagers makes it the largest taxpayer for the government. A government survey in found that nearly one million Australians 5.
Horse race betting in New South Wales NSW is conducted by bookmakers at race meetings and via telephone and Tabcorp tote betting at racecourses and through various retail outlets including the internet. Betting on horse racing in the UK is wide and varied. In there were 8. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers. Anderson; Ian S.
Blackshaw; Robert C. Siekmann; Janwillem Soek 28 October Sports Betting: Law and Policy. National Thoroughbred Racing Association. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved The Art of Manliness. Win So Much Money at the Racetrack".
Raceform Limited. South China Morning Post. Australian Institute of Family Studies. Australian Gambling Research Centre In recent years, [ when? In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times.
Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland, and France in size and prestige. The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable. In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern.
In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal. Harness racing also known as trotting , is a popular sport in Sweden, with significant amounts of money wagered annually.
Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world. In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years.
In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s. More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race. In all endurance events, there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern.
Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1. More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand. Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world.
The most famous New Zealand standardbred horse is probably Cardigan Bay. The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere. The Mauritius Turf Club is the second oldest active turf club in the world.
Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island. A high level of professionalism has been attained in the organization of races over the last decades preserving the unique electrifying ambiance prevailing on race days at the Champ de Mars. Most of the horses are imported from South Africa but some are also acquired from Australia, the United Kingdom and France.
Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in The premier event, which attracts 50, people to Durban, is the Durban July Handicap , which has been run since at Greyville Racecourse. It is the largest and most prestigious event on the continent, with betting running into the hundreds of millions of Rands. Horse racing in one form or another has been a part of Chinese culture for millennia.
Horse racing was a popular pastime for the aristocracy at least by the Zhou Dynasty — 4th century B. General Tian Ji 's strategem for a horse race remains perhaps the best-known story about horse racing in that period. In the 18th and 19th centuries, horse racing and equestrian sports in China was dominated by Mongol influences. Thoroughbred horse racing came to China with British settlements in the middle s and most notably centered around the treaty ports, including the two major race courses in Shanghai , the Shanghai Racecourse and the International Recreation Grounds in Kiang-wan , and the racecourses of Tianjin.
See below. Horse racing was banned in the Republic of China from , and the People's Republic of China maintained the ban after , although allowances were made for ethnic minority peoples for whom horse sports are a cultural tradition. The longer race led to deaths and injuries to participating horses in both and the 11th National Games in Also, with the entry into the sport of Han majority provinces such as Hubei , which are better funded and used Western, rather than traditional, breeding and training techniques, meant that the original purpose of the event to foster traditional horse racing for groups like the Mongols was at risk of being usurped.
At the National Games, Hubei won both the gold and silver medals, with Inner Mongolia winning bronze. As a result of these factors, the event was abolished for the 12th National Games in Club horse racing reappeared on a small scale in the s. In , the China Speed Horse Race Open in Wuhan was organized as the qualification round for the speed horse race event at the National Games the next year, but was also seen by commentators as a step towards legalizing both horse racing and gambling on the races.
Almost all Chinese trainers and jockeys stabled in Wuhan. However, with the demise of the event at the National Games and the government not relenting from the ban on commercial racing, various racecourses built in recent years are all in a state of disuse: The Nanjing Racecourse, which previously hosted National Games equestrian events, is now used as a car park;  the Beijing Jockey Club was shut down in The racecourse in Inner Mongolia has not been active after Horse racing eventually returned to mainland China on the year as the one-day, five-card event for foreign horses, trainers and jockeys.
The British tradition of horse racing left its mark with the creation of one of the most important entertainment and gambling institutions in Hong Kong. Established as the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club in , the non-profit organization conducts nearly races every season at the two race tracks: in Happy Valley and Sha Tin.
All horses are imported since there is no breeding operation. Off-track betting is available from overseas bookmakers. In the s, the Hong Kong Jockey Club had race meetings for visitors already. Visitors were divided into public and member. The charges for these two types of visitors are different. It donates all its profits to the Hong Kong government, charities and public institutions.
In economic terms, the Hong Kong Jockey Club is an old-fashioned government-protected monopoly; all other forms of gambling are illegal in this industry. Sweepstakes were introduced in Hong Kong during the s. Special Cash Sweeps were at first drawn twice a year, and increased to three times a year later given its popularity. It carried the highest prize money amongst three types of sweepstakes. The Last Race Sweep commanded higher prize money then Ordinary Cash Sweeps, which were drawn for almost every race and therefore carried the lowest prize money.
Sweepstakes could be purchased either at sweepstakes stations or from sweepstakes vendor throughout Hong Kong. With different number print on each sweepstake, one sweepstake is drawn and assigned, for each horse participating in the race, and the sweepstake attached to the winning horse would win the first prize. Likewise, the number of the first runner-up and second runner-up would win the second and third prize, respectively, with the rest winning consolation prizes.
With introduction of new bet types in horse racing and the launch of Mark Six lottery in the s, the club finally stop selling sweepstakes in Jockey Club of Macau was established for harness racing. It started to conduct horse races in India's first racecourse was set up in Madras in Today India has nine racetracks operated by seven racing authorities.
Between them they conduct more than 21, horse races a year. The JRA is responsible for 'Chuo Keiba' meaning 'central horse racing' , taking place on the ten main Japanese tracks. Racing in Japan is mainly flat racing , but Japan also has jump racing and a sled-pulling race known as Ban'ei also called Draft Racing. Japan's top stakes races are run in the spring, autumn, and winter.
In Malaysia , horse racing was introduced during the British colonial era and remains to the present day as a gambling activity. Within and only within the turf clubs, betting on horse racing is a legal form of gambling. Mongolian horse racing takes place during the Naadam festival. Mongolia does not have Thoroughbred horse racing.
Rather, it has its own Mongolian style of horse racing in which the horses run for at least a distance of 25 kilometers. Horse races are held in Pakistan at four clubs. Horseracing in the Philippines began in The history of Philippine horseracing has three divisions according to the breeds of horses used. They are the Philippine-pony era — , the Arabian-horse era — , and the Thoroughbred-era —present. Horse racing was introduced to Singapore by the British during the colonial era and remained one of the legal forms of gambling after independence.
It remains a highly popular form of entertainment with the local Singaporean community to this day. Horse racing has also left its mark in the naming of roads in Singapore such as Race Course Road in Little India , where horse racing was first held in Singapore, and Turf Club Road in Bukit Timah where Singapore Turf Club used to be situated before moving to its current location in Horse racing in South Korea dates back to May , when a foreign language institute run by the government included a donkey race in its athletic rally.
However, it wasn't until the s that modern horse racing involving betting developed. The nation's first authorised club, the Chosun Racing Club, was established in and a year later, the pari-mutuel betting system was officially adopted for the first time. The Korean War disrupted the development of horse racing in the country, but after the Seoul Olympics in , the Olympic Equestrian Park was converted into racing facilities named Seoul Race Park , which helped the sport to develop again.
The Dubai World Cup is once again the world's richest horse race. The Pegasus World Cup had its purse reduced in to make room for a new turf race. The race track complex contains two tracks with seating for 60,, a hotel, restaurants, theater and museum. There is no parimutuel betting in the UAE as gambling is illegal. In Argentina the sport is known as turf. Carlos Gardel's tango Por una cabeza is about horse racing, a sport of which he was a known fan.
Gardel was a good friend of Irineo Leguisamo , who is the most recognized Argentine jockey. At many horse races, there is a gambling station, where gamblers can stake money on a horse. Where gambling is allowed, most tracks offer parimutuel betting where gamblers' money is pooled and shared proportionally among the winners once a deduction is made from the pool. In some countries, such as the UK, Ireland, and Australia, an alternative and more popular facility is provided by bookmakers who effectively make a market in odds.
This allows the gambler to 'lock in' odds on a horse at a particular time known as 'taking the price' in the UK. Anna Waller, a member of the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of North Carolina, co-authored a four-year-long study of jockey injuries and stated to The New York Times that "For every 1, jockeys you have riding [for one year], over will have medically treated injuries.
The study reported 6, injuries during the years — Horses also face dangers in racing. The U. Jockey Club in New York estimates that about horses died at racetracks in Another estimates there are deaths annual in the US. There is speculation that drugs used in horse racing in the United States, which are banned elsewhere, are responsible for the higher death rate in the United States.
In the Canadian province of Ontario , a study of 1, racehorse deaths between and found that the majority of deaths were attributable to "damage during exercise to the horses' musculoskeletal system ", including fractures, dislocations, and tendon ruptures. The study also found that the incidence of off-track deaths were twice as high for thoroughbreds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Horse race disambiguation. Equestrian sport. Horse racing at Golden Gate Fields , Main articles: National Hunt racing , Steeplechase horse racing , and Hurdling horse race. Main article: Harness racing. Main article: Endurance riding. Further information: Horse breeding. Main article: Thoroughbred. Main article: Standardbred. Main article: Arabian horse.
Main article: American Quarter Horse. See also: Horse racing in the United States. Main article: Horseracing in Great Britain. See also: Horseracing in Scotland and Horseracing in Wales. Main article: Horse racing in Ireland. See also: List of horse races in Italy. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Harness racing in Sweden. Main articles: Thoroughbred racing in Australia and Harness racing in Australia. Main article: Horse racing in India. Main article: Horseracing in Japan. Main article: Horseracing in the Philippines. Main article: Horse racing in South Korea. Horses portal Sports portal.
Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 6 May International Federation of Horse Racing Authorities. Archived from the original on Retrieved Official Horse Picks. Retrieved 12 September Smith, Elder. Fletcher The history of the St. Leger stakes, — The Horse Racing Channel. Archived from the original on 11 July The Hambletonian Society. Harness Racing New Zealand". Guinness World Records. Retrieved September 16, Retrieved 17 September University of Arizona Library, Tucson, Arizona.
August 9, Retrieved July 25, Potter, B. Nielsen, D. Householder, and W. Archived at Wikiwix Publication. Equine Law. Sky News. Retrieved 8 April Retrieved on 15 November Racing Post. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 26 April Australia Racing Board. Archived from the original PDF on Hong Kong Sunday Herald. Hong Kong Memory. Far Eastern Economic Review. Philippine Racing Commission.
Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Asian Racing Federation. Retrieved 27 April National Thoroughbred Racing Association. New York Times. It's time to outlaw it". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 October The Canadian Press.
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|Lyrics to bet on it||This horse racing -related article is a stub. On 31 Januarythe government announced that a short-list had been drawn-up for the next round of the process but declined to confirm which bids were on it. Instead it supported plans for betting tips on horse racing smaller casinos, including ones in Solihull and Wolverhampton. Horse betting uk wikipedia real money at stake, the system needed skilled jockeys, trainers, grooms and experts at breeding, thereby opening new prestigious careers for working-class rural men. The Jockey Club governed the sport until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Boardformed in June and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport. The largest share of the levy is spent on race prize money, but it also provides funding for regulation and integrity services, racing and breeding industry training and education, projects for the benefit of the thoroughbred horse, loans to racecourses for capital projects and resources for various other activities pursuant to the organisation's statutory objectives.|
|Grand national winners betting odds||Snai sportsbook betting|
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In addition to traditional betting with a bookmaker, punters bettors are able to both back and lay money on an online betting exchange. Punters who lay the odds are in effect acting as a bookmaker. The odds of a horse are set by the market conditions of the betting exchange which is dictated to by the activity of the members.
By the late 19th century over tracks were in operation in the country but those opposed to gambling caused the banning of bookmakers and horse racing at the beginning of the next century. In pari-mutuel tote betting was introduced, helping the industry to prosper and that has continued to be the case to the present day.
Pari-mutuel betting is currently legal in 32 US states. Due to new legislation horse race betting in the US could change significantly in the near future. Hong Kong generates the largest horse racing revenue in the world and is home to some of the largest horse betting circles including the Hong Kong Jockey Club founded in Betting on horse racing is ingrained in local culture and is seen as an investment.
The revenue the club generate from various wagers makes it the largest taxpayer for the government. A government survey in found that nearly one million Australians 5. Horse race betting in New South Wales NSW is conducted by bookmakers at race meetings and via telephone and Tabcorp tote betting at racecourses and through various retail outlets including the internet.
Betting on horse racing in the UK is wide and varied. In there were 8. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers. Anderson; Ian S. Blackshaw; Robert C. Siekmann; Janwillem Soek 28 October Sports Betting: Law and Policy. National Thoroughbred Racing Association.
Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved The Art of Manliness. Win So Much Money at the Racetrack". Raceform Limited. South China Morning Post. Australian Institute of Family Studies. Australian Gambling Research Centre See: Gambling games. Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability. See: Gambling terminology. Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling. Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject.
Categories : Wagering Horse racing Sports betting. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Namespaces Article Talk. This list is then divided into two equal halves and the SP is the shortest odds available in the half containing the longest odds.
Thus the SP or a longer price will have been offered by at least half the bookmakers in the sample. Note : This method is slightly different from the method of calculating the median. The principal function of a starting price is to determine returns on those winning bets where fixed odds have not been taken at the time the bet was struck. Typically, on the day of the race, UK bookmakers offer a choice between placing a bet at SP, or taking a fixed price.
Some bookmakers offer best odds guaranteed , meaning that if a punter takes fixed odds on a race when the bet is struck and the SP turns out to be better that is, higher , then if the punter wins, the payout is calculated using the SP. This is aimed at removing hesitancy among punters prompted by fears of taking what might prove to be a poor that is, low price before the race. In the United Kingdom, the stake on an SP bet is returned if the horse is withdrawn before the race starts. For fixed-odds ante-post bets, the stake is retained by the bookmaker.
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In April , British Horseracing launched Retraining of Racehorses RoR , the official charity for the welfare of horses who have retired from racing through injury, old age or a lack of ability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Racing Post. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 5 January Pool betting on horses is a monopoly of The Tote.
There are over 1, betting shops located in London. There is a large market in the United Kingdom for gambling on competitive sports at bookmakers betting shops or licensed websites, particularly for horse , greyhound racing and football. The last of these also has an associated form of gambling known as the football pools , in which players win by correctly predicting the outcome of each week's matches. The total online gambling population in the UK is estimated at 2.
Sports gambling is advertised on television at times when children and young people are watching. There are calls for the government to control this. Stephen van Rooyen of Sky UK , maintains the TV ad ban is meaningless unless the industry also curbs advertising on other media. Rooyen stated, "The gambling industry are ignoring the fact they spend five times more on online marketing than they do on TV.
A proportionate and responsible limit to gambling advertising across all media is the right thing to do". The voluntary reduction also does not prevent shirt sponsorship, ads that run around hoardings in stadiums, so that gambling firms will still feature prominently during live sport. Simon Stevens, then-chief executive of the NHS , said in that he "disapproved of eight betting firms" because "they do not pay towards NHS costs in countering gambling addiction.
A statute of provided that in England lotteries were by default illegal unless specifically authorised by statute. The aim of the statute was that before the era of mass and efficient communications, those running national lotteries could claim to one part of the country that the winner lived in another, and do the same the other way: thus taking all the stakes and paying nothing out. A Act legalised small lotteries, which was further liberalised in and , but even then severely limited in the stakes, and the geographical scope that they could cover, so there could be no chance of the lottery organisers deceiving the bettors.
There could be no big national lottery until the Government established one, however. Other countrywide lotteries do exist, but work by dividing the prizes and stakes strictly on a geographical basis into small areas and thus technically not becoming a national lottery. The Gambling Commission called the Health Lottery in "a very fine line" and insisted it would only be legal if split into at least 31 separate, identifiable schemes so as not to become "a de facto National Lottery".
The United Kingdom's state-franchised lottery is known as the National Lottery , which was set up under government licence in Several games are run under this brand, including Lotto and Thunderball. As with other lotteries players choose a set of numbers, say 6 from 59, with six numbers then being drawn at random.
Players win cash prizes depending on how many numbers they match. Currently this is available in nine countries. In the United Kingdom, the national lottery has so far raised several billions of pounds for Good Causes , a programme which distributes money via grants. The odds of specific combinations occurring in the United Kingdom national lottery are as follows [ citation needed ] :.
The UK Postcode Lottery is in aid of charity, and works by using an entrant's postcode plus a unique three-digit number as their ticket number. Prizes are drawn every Thursday. These are small pieces of cardboard where an area has been covered by a substance that cannot be seen through but can be scratched off.
The Gambling Commission identifies 3 types of amusement arcades. Until the Betting Gaming and Lotteries Act off-course betting in person was illegal, but bets by telephone were legal since this was not considered, by the letter of the law, "resorting to a house kept for the purpose of betting".
Remote gambling is growing in popularity in the United Kingdom. According to the survey conducted by the Gambling Commission, as of March , In the figure was The major part of these gamblers was represented by those playing the National Lottery online. Upon their exclusion, the figures are 5. All forms of online gambling are licensed by the Gambling Commission and therefore can be legally provided in the country under a licence from the Commission. The Commission's site has details of both licensed operators and applicants.
Many bookmakers such as sport , Betfair , Ladbrokes and William Hill have offshore operations but these are largely for overseas customers since no tax is due on winnings of bets in the UK. Many would advise you, as a tipster , to "pay the tax before" since it is a smaller amount, but mathematically it works out the same [ clarification needed ] since arithmetical multiplication is commutative.
This tax was abolished with the general reform of the gambling acts. Until the Gambling Act , the Betting Gaming and Lotteries Act prohibited "betting and the passing of betting slips" in licensed premises, that is those licensed to sell alcohol. Six specific games, Pool , Cribbage , Darts , Bar billiards , Shove-halfpenny and Dominoes could be "played for small stakes on those parts of the premises open to the public". A notice to the effect had to be posted in a prominent place.
It is legal to place bets via mobile phones from a pub, even through the pub's wi-fi connection, but only for oneself, not for another. Betting syndicates, where several bettors pool their bets, may or may not be illegal, depending on the nature of the scheme. However, lottery syndicates are extremely common and even officially encouraged.
Sweepstakes for the Grand National and occasionally other events are extremely common in offices, and are generally winked at if played for small stakes and not for profit or that any profit goes to charity. Publicans must also be vigilant in ensuring that their customers do not pass betting slips between each other but only bet for themselves.
In general, it is illegal for the holder of a licence to sell alcohol to facilitate betting on the premises. Most pubs in the UK have a one-armed bandit of one kind or another, but the prizes are strictly controlled. The law allows larger prizes in private clubs. Health provision for problem gamblers is very limited, according to Bill Moyes, chair of the Gambling Commission. The industry refers to problem gamblers as VIP's, according to, The Guardian the industry actively encourages VIP's to gamble more by providing them with free gifts.
The industry recruits staff to target VIP's and get them to spend more, to contact VIP's who have not gambled for some time and get them to restart gambling, to identify less serious gamblers who could become VIP's and get them to gamble more. Gambling ages in the United Kingdom are set out in the Gambling Act : Part 4, Protection of children and young persons.
The UK government previously limited television ads to only National Lottery, Bingo, and football pools, but when a new Gambling Act came into effect in they relaxed all of those restrictions. By , the UK media regulator Ofcom reported that this more relaxed approach had led to a seven-fold increase in the number of gambling ads that were aired on the TV.
The Committee of Advertising Practice which is responsible for penning advertising codes in the UK has announced new rules aimed at protecting children from underage gambling. The announcement came on Wednesday, 13 February, and under the new directive, all gambling ads will not be allowed on websites or games that are popular with children. The new regulations aim introducing extra layer of protection to ensure that children below the age of 18 are not targeted by gambling adverts. To realize this, bookies will be required to ensure that online wagering promotions are not aired to minors.
To fully comply with this provision, operators will be required to refrain from placing ads that promoting betting on sections of websites that target children. The rules also prohibit gambling companies from running real-money wagering ads on video games that are popular with kids, and it will also be upon these companies to ensure that their marketing content does not contain imagery that may appeal to children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: History of gambling in the United Kingdom. Main article: National Lottery United Kingdom. Main article: The Health Lottery. Main article: UK Postcode Lottery. See also: Pub games.